Under the auspices of IOC, an international group of experts has prepared a series of critical literature reviews on the relationship between sports, physical activity (PA), fitness, and health in children. These reviews will culminate into a series of papers and one position statement (analogue to the IOC consensus statement on training the elite child athlete-Mountjoy et al., Br J Sports Med. 2008 Mar;42(3):163-4.'). Health and Fitness of Young People Through Sport addresses the following key issues: are children fit and active?; health problems related with lack of PA/low fitness; correlates of PA/inactivity/low fitness; and what are the options for change?